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¿Que es una semilla? - Hortyjardín

What is a seed?

What is a seed?

The seed is the result of the fertilization of an ovule by a grain of pollen. During pollination, the pollen grain attaches to the stigma of a flower and then a pollen tube grows through the style toward the ovule. Once the pollen tube reaches the ovule, fertilization occurs, fusing the male and female gametes, giving rise to the plant embryo.

The structure of a seed:

It varies depending on the plant species, but generally consists of the following parts:

Integument:

It is the protective outer layer of the seed. It can be a thin, transparent layer or a thicker, harder covering, depending on the plant. The integument can be smooth, rough or have specialized structures that facilitate its dispersion.

Embryo:

It is the part of the seed that will develop into a new plant. It includes a seedling, which is the future miniature plant with embryonic roots, stem and leaves, and a tissue called cotyledonary tissue that provides nutrients to the embryo during germination.

Endosperm:

Some seeds contain endosperm, a nutrient-rich reserve tissue that provides energy and nutrients to the developing embryo during germination. The endosperm may be present in the form of triploid tissue or may be absorbed by the cotyledons.

Seeds have adaptations that allow them to disperse and survive in different conditions. Some are dispersed through the wind, others through water, some are dispersed by animals or adhere to their hair, and there are also seeds that are ingested by animals and dispersed through their feces.

Seeds are important in agriculture and horticulture, as they are used to propagate plants efficiently and reproduce desirable varieties. In addition, seeds also play a crucial role in the conservation of plant species, allowing their storage and distribution for future planting and ecosystem restoration.

Something that we should not forget is that some vegetables are propagated from cuttings or roots (such as potatoes); but Most vegetables originate from seeds . Given this, it is essential to have high quality seeds; That is why at Hortyjardín ® we only provide you with seeds with high germination power.


ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS FOR THE GERMINATION OF A SEED

a) The water

This is essential for the seed to rehydrate and for there to be an aqueous medium where metabolic processes can be carried out. We recommend that you soak the seeds for 12 hours to speed up the germination time of the seeds.

If you want to avoid the step of soaking the seeds, you can sow them directly into the substrate, always keeping it moist.

b) Gases

Germination involves a gas exchange, the seed releases carbon dioxide and oxygen enters. To make this easier for us to understand, we must consider that plants are living beings that have the same requirements as us in order to live; That is why to achieve good oxygen distribution, very porous substrates must be used, such as Tepojal from Hortyjardin ®, argollite or vermiculite.

c) The temperature

This point is very important since the germination process is also influenced by temperature. For each type of seed, there is a minimum temperature, below which the germination processes cannot be detected visually in a reasonable period of time, and a maximum temperature, above which the damage to the seed is irreversible. . There is also an optimal temperature, at which the maximum percentage of germination occurs in a minimum of time.

d) The light

In most cultivated plants it has been seen that they do not require light to germinate, since they do so in the same way in the light as in the dark . It is until the first leaves appear that sunlight is essential. For this last reason, we recommend that you do not have your plants in low light after you observe their first leaves.

Stages in seed germination

The absorption of water by soaking or wetting, causing swelling and rupture of the protective cover. The first step for germination to begin is for the seed to come into contact with water.

At this stage the seed begins what is known as enzymatic activity and respiratory metabolism, as it begins to assimilate its reserves that will help the embryo emerge.

It is in this third stage, where we will finally observe growth. From one day to the next we can see the emergence of the root and later the stem.

Ideal planting temperatures (view or download)

Creole Seeds

The word creole means "autochthonous or own." So when we say Creole seeds we are referring to seeds adapted to our environment through a process of natural or manual selection on the part of the producers. These encourage a return to traditional self-consumption agriculture, avoiding the depletion of land and the loss of Biodiversity.

At Hortyjardín ® you can find this type of seeds, which in addition to having an affordable price, contribute to maintaining a balance in the environment.

Improved Seeds:

Seeds whose characteristic is having been selected with the help of man through more specific methods (controlled pollination). It has special properties, such as: precocity, high production, resistance to pests and diseases, as well as adaptation to certain regions.

Baby Seeds:

Improved seeds so that the vegetable does not develop completely. They are tender, delicate, somewhat sweeter, with a firm texture and a bright color.

Regarding the nutritional values ​​of baby vegetables or mini vegetables, they are similar to those provided by complete vegetables (perhaps very slightly higher).

So, is it consumed only for the pleasure of offering or taking something exotic? The demand for baby vegetables is booming, despite the fact that there is no exclusive dedication to their production in many countries such as Mexico.

Hybrids:

Hybrid seeds are the result of crossing two different varieties of a plant species. A controlled cross is carried out to take advantage of the desirable characteristics of both parents. Hybrid seeds usually have uniform characteristics and may show better yield or resistance compared to the parent varieties. However, seeds from hybrid plants will not produce stable offspring, which means you will not be able to save seeds from hybrid crops to replant them the next season.

The Grafts:

Grafting is a propagation technique in which the stem of one plant (called the rootstock) is joined to the top of another plant (called the graft). In the case of grafted seeds, the rootstock and scion develop from different seeds. This technique is used to combine desirable characteristics of the scion, such as disease resistance or adaptation to certain soil conditions, with the strong, healthy roots of the rootstock.

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Transgenic:

Although the cultivation of GMOs is prohibited in Mexico; Since 1996, genetically modified vegetables from imports have been freely distributed on the market. For more than 10 years we have been consuming foods that impact our health, which is why it is so vitally important to start growing our own vegetables at home.

A transgenic vegetable presents; resistance to pests, longer shelf life, resistance in post-harvest handling, better yields, resistance to aggressive environmental conditions, such as frost, drought and saline soils and reduce the use of insecticides; But in exchange for all these benefits, it also gives us the uncertainty of not knowing what we are eating and the environmental and health repercussions that it may bring us.

Transgenic foods and the industrialization of the food system have resulted in cancers and kidney disorders with insecurity as to whether they are actually nutritious.

What transgenic crops are produced in Mexico?

In Mexico, controlled trials and research have been carried out with different transgenic plants such as pumpkin, canola, carnation, chili, corn, potato, pineapple, soy, tomato, wheat and cotton, among others . The planting of genetically modified organisms that occupies the largest area in Mexico is that of cotton.

Hortyjardín DOES NOT MARKET TRANSGENIC SEEDS

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